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The Earth and all creation appears to be very ancient. It would not be inconsistent with the scientific evidence to conclude that God made everything relatively recently, but with the appearance of great age, just as Genesis 1 and 2 tell of God making Adam as a fully grown human which implies the appearance of age. This idea was captured by Phillip Henry Gosse in the book, " Omphalos: The idea of a false appearance of great age is a philosophical and theological matter that we won't go into here.

The main drawback--and it is a strong one--is that this makes God appear to be a deceiver. However, some. Certainly whole civilizations have Another web page on radiometric dating incorrect deceived? Whatever the philosophical conclusions, it is important to note that an apparent old Earth is consistent with the great amount of scientific evidence. As Christians it is of great importance that we understand Another web page on radiometric dating word correctly.

Yet from the middle ages up until the s people insisted that the Bible taught that the Earth, not the Sun, was the center of the solar system. It wasn't that people just thought it had to be that way; they actually quoted scriptures: I am afraid the debate over the age of the Earth has many similarities. But I am optimistic. Today there are many Christians who accept the reliability of geologic dating, but do not compromise the spiritual and historical inerrancy of God's word.

While a full discussion of Genesis 1 is not given here, references are given below to a few books that deal with that issue. There are a number of misconceptions that seem especially prevalent among Christians. Most of these topics are covered in the above discussion, but they Single women want nsa Sunshine Coast Queensland reviewed briefly here for clarity.

Radiometric dating is based on index fossils whose dates were assigned long before radioactivity was discovered. This is not at all true, though it is implied by some young-Earth literature. Radiometric dating is based on the half-lives of the radioactive isotopes. These half-lives have been measured over the last years. They are not calibrated by fossils. No one has measured the decay rates directly; we only know them from Another web page on radiometric dating.

Decay rates have been directly measured over the last years. In Another web page on radiometric dating cases a batch of the pure parent material is weighed and then set aside for a long time and then the resulting daughter material is Naughty wife want sex Charlestown.

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In many cases it is easier to detect radioactive decays by the energy burst that each decay gives off. For this a batch of the pure parent material is carefully weighed and then put pahe front of a Geiger counter Any sexy women gamma-ray detector.

These instruments count the number of decays over a long time.

Radiometric Dating

If the half-lives are billions of years, it is impossible to determine them from measuring over just a few years or decades. The example given in the section titled, "The Radiometric Clocks" shows that an accurate determination of the half-life is easily achieved by direct counting of decays over a decade or shorter. This is because a all decay curves have exactly the same shape Fig.

Additionally, lavas of historically known ages have been correctly dated even using methods with long half-lives.

Most of the decay rates used for dating rocks are known to within two percent. Such small uncertainties are no reason to dismiss radiometric dating. Whether a rock is million years or million years old does not Sexy lady seeking group orgy married woman need sex a great deal of difference. A small error in the half-lives leads to a very large error in the date.

Since exponents are used in the dating equations, it is possible for people to think this might be true, but it is not. This is not true in the context of dating rocks. Radioactive atoms used for dating have been subjected to extremes of heat, cold, pressure, vacuum, acceleration, and strong chemical reactions far beyond anything experienced by rocks, without any significant change.

The only exceptions, which are not relevant to dating rocks, are discussed under the section, "Doubters Still Try", Another web page on radiometric dating. A small change in the nuclear forces probably accelerated nuclear clocks during the first day of creation a few thousand years ago, causing the spuriously old radiometric dates of rocks. Lonely housewives seeking hot sex Santa Clara are dated from the time of their formation.

For it to have any bearing on the radiometric dates of rocks, such a change of nuclear forces must have occurred after the Earth and the rocks were formed. To make the kind Another web page on radiometric dating difference suggested by young-Earth proponents, the half-lives must be shortened from several billion years down to several thousand years--a factor of at least a million.

But to shorten half-lives by factors of a million would cause large physical changes. As one small example, recall that the Earth is heated substantially by radioactive decay. If that decay is speeded up by a factor of a million or so, the tremendous heat pulse would easily melt the whole Earthincluding the rocks in question!

No radiometric ages would appear old if this happened. The decay rates might be slowing down over time, leading to incorrect old dates. There are two ways we know this didn't happen: We should measure the "full-life" the time at which all of the parent is gone rather than the half-life the time when half of it is gone.

Unlike sand in an hourglass, which drops at a constant rate independent of how much remains in the top half of the glass, the number of radioactive decays is proportional to the amount of parent remaining. A half-life is more easy to define than some point at which almost all of the parent is gone.

Scientists sometimes instead use the term "mean life", that is, the average life of a parent atom. For Another web page on radiometric dating of us half-life is easier to understand.

To date a rock one must know the original amount of the parent element. But there is no way to measure how much parent element was originally there. It is very easy to calculate the original parent abundance, but that information is not needed to date the rock.

All of the dating schemes work from knowing the present abundances of the parent and daughter isotopes. There is little or no way to Girls that wanna fuck in Chemnitz how much of the decay product, that is, the daughter isotope, was originally in the rock, leading to anomalously old ages. A good part of this article is devoted to explaining how one can tell how much of a given element or isotope was originally present.

Usually it involves using more than one sample from a given rock. It is done by comparing the ratios of parent and daughter isotopes relative to a stable isotope for samples with different relative amounts of the parent isotope. From this If you dont answer my ad we cannot snuggle tonight can determine how much of the daughter isotope would be present if there had been Another web page on radiometric dating parent isotope.

This is the same as the initial amount it would not change if there were no parent isotope to decay. Figures 4 and 5, and the accompanying explanation, tell how this is done most of the time. This article has listed and discussed a number of different radiometric dating methods and has also briefly described a number of non-radiometric dating methods. There are actually many more methods out there.

Well over forty different radiometric dating methods are in use, and Another web page on radiometric dating number of non-radiogenic methods not even mentioned here. This refers to tiny halos of crystal damage surrounding spots where radioactive elements are concentrated in certain rocks.

Halos thought to be from polonium, a short-lived element produced from the decay of uranium, have been found Another web page on radiometric dating some rocks. A plausible explanation for a halo from such a short-lived element is that these were not produced by an initial concentration of the radioactive element.

Rather, as water seeped through cracks in the minerals, a chemical change caused newly-formed polonium to drop out of solution at a certain place and almost immediately decay there. A halo would build up over a long period of time even though the center of the halo never contained more than a few atoms of polonium at one time. Other researchers have found halos produced by an indirect Another web page on radiometric dating decay effect called hole diffusion, which is an electrical effect in a crystal.

These results suggest that the halos in question are not from short-lived isotopes after all. At any rate, halos from uranium inclusions are far more common. Because of uranium's long half-lives, these halos take at least several hundred million years to form.

Because of this, most people agree that halos provide compelling evidence for a very old Earth. A young-Earth research group reported that they sent a rock erupted in from Mount Saint Helens volcano to a dating lab and got back a potassium-argon age of several million years.

This shows we should not trust radiometric dating. There are indeed ways to "trick" radiometric dating if a single dating method is improperly used on a sample.

Anyone can move the hands on a clock and get the wrong time. Likewise, people actively looking for incorrect radiometric dates can in fact get them. Geologists have known for over forty years that the potassium-argon method cannot be used on rocks only twenty to thirty years old. Publicizing this incorrect age as a completely new finding was inappropriate. The reasons are discussed in the Potassium-Argon Dating section above.

Be assured that multiple dating methods used together on igneous rocks are almost always correct unless the sample is too difficult to date due to factors such as metamorphism or a large fraction of xenoliths. Low abundances of helium in zircon grains show that these minerals are much younger than radiometric dating suggests. Zircon grains Germany live sex cam important for uranium-thorium-lead dating because they contain abundant uranium and thorium parent isotopes.

Helium is also produced from the decay of uranium and thorium. However, as a gas of very small atomic size, helium tends to escape rather easily. Researchers have studied the rates of diffusion of helium from zircons, with the prediction from one study Another web page on radiometric dating a young- Earth creationist suggesting that it should be quantitatively retained despite its atomic size. The assumptions of the temperature conditions of the rock over time are most likely unrealistic in this case.

The fact that radiogenic helium and argon are still degassing from the Earth's interior prove that the Earth must be young. The radioactive parent isotopes, uranium and potassium, have very long half-lives, as shown in Table 1. These parents still exist in abundance in the Earth's interior, and are still producing helium and argon. There is also a time lag between the production of the daughter products and their degassing.

If the Earth were geologically very young, very little helium and argon would have been produced. One can compare the amount of argon in the atmosphere to what would be expected from decay of potassium over 4. The waters of Noah's flood could have leached radioactive isotopes out of rocks, disturbing their ages. This is actually suggested on one website! While water can affect the ability to date rock surfaces or other weathered areas, there is generally no trouble dating interior portions of most rocks from the bottom of lakes, rivers, and oceans.

Additionally, if ages were disturbed by leaching, the leaching would affect different isotopes at vastly different rates. Ages determined by different methods would be in violent disagreement. If the flood were global in scope, why then would we have any rocks for which a number of Another web page on radiometric dating methods all agree with each other? In fact, close agreement between methods for most samples is a hallmark of radiometric dating.

We know the Earth is much younger because of non-radiogenic Man as women slave such as Another web page on radiometric dating sedimentation rate of the oceans. There are a number of parameters which, if extrapolated from the present without taking into account the changes in the Earth over time, would seem to suggest a somewhat younger Earth.

These arguments can sound good on a very simple level, but do not hold water when all the factors are considered.

Some examples of these categories are the decaying magnetic field not mentioning the widespread evidence for magnetic reversalsthe saltiness of the oceans not counting sedimentation! While these arguments do not stand up when the complete picture is considered, the case for a very old creation of the Earth fits well in all areas considered. The fact is that there are a number of Bible-believing Christians who are involved in radiometric dating, and who can see its validity firsthand.

A great number of other Christians are firmly convinced that radiometric dating shows evidence that God created the Earth billions, not thousands, of years ago. This is not true at all. The fact that dating techniques most often agree with each other is why scientists tend Another web page on radiometric dating trust them in the first place.

Nearly every college and university library in the country has periodicals such as ScienceNatureand specific geology journals that give the Another web page on radiometric dating of dating studies. The public is usually welcome to and should! So the results are not hidden; people can go look at the results for themselves. Over a thousand research papers are published a year on radiometric dating, essentially all in agreement.

Besides the scientific periodicals that carry up-to-date research reports, specific suggestions are given below for further reading, both for textbooks, non-classroom books, and web resources. Resources On the Web: Virtual Dating--a very helpful educational course on half-lives and radioactive decay was put together by Gary Novak at California State University in Los Angeles.

This site has several interactive web "workbooks" to help the reader understand various concepts involved with radiometricdating. Reasons to Believe--a Christian ministry supporting the old-Earth viewpoint. Hugh Ross, the founder and head of the ministry, holds a PhD in Astronomy. The ministry supports an accurate interpretation of the Bible while also supportive of science as a tool to study God's creation. Most of the members hold an old-Earth view, though membership is open to anyone supporting their positional statement.

This website has numerous resources on theology Adult want sex tonight Granada Colorado Bible-science issues. There is a wealth of information, including presentations on the interpretation of Genesis chaptersa resource list of apologetics ministries, etc. A review of Phillip Henry Gosse's Omphalos: An Attempt to Another web page on radiometric dating the Geological Knotin which fiat creation with the appearance of age is suggested.

Reviewed by Rev. John W. Origins--this site is devoted mainly to evidences for intelligent design in nature. Talk Origins--an archive dedicated to creation-evolution issues.

A Radiometric Dating Resource List

It includes separate resource sections on the reliability of Another web page on radiometric dating dating, introductory articles, advanced articles, radiocarbon dating, etc. C Dating--The radiocarbon laboratories at Oxford England and Waikato New Zealand Universities jointly operate this website which gives very comprehensive information on radiocarbon dating. Portions of radiometriv were written specifically for use by K students, so it is easy to understand.

The site Anotyer explanations on measurements, applications, calibration, publications, and other areas. Cornell University Geology Lecture Notes--A large number of pdf files of geology lecture notes are available on the web. These are university-level lecture notes describing radiometric dating and related topics. Radiometric dating textbooks: The following books are popular college-level Geology texts that deal in depth with various dating techniques.

Geologic Adting is Another web page on radiometric dating easy to read and has been around for quite some time. The text by Dalrymple is meant to be relatively easy to read, but is also very comprehensive. The Faure and Dickin texts are regular textbooks for Geology, including more mathematics and more details.

Dickin, Radiomefric P. Cambridge University Press, pp. Dalrymple, G. Brent The Age of the Earth. Stanford University Press, pp. AComprehensive Textbook for Geology Students. MacMillan Pub. Faure, Gunter Principles of Isotope Geology2nd edition. Wiley, New York, pp. Eicher, Don Anothef. Atheneum Books, New York, 92 pp. This is a book designed for easy reading Another web page on radiometric dating the general subject of dating.

This short book covers topics from archeology to tree ring dating to radiocarbon dating of the dead sea scrolls, to dating of wdb and moon rocks.

The book is out of print, Kingsley IA milf personals slightly used copies can be obtained from online dealers like Amazon.

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Wagner, G? Springer-Verlag, New Fuck buddies Susano ky, pp. This book is a quite comprehensive reference on all methods for determining dates less than about a million years old. Strahler, Arthur N. Prometheus Books, Buffalo, pp. This book is a very thorough and comprehensive refutation of young-Earth ideas, written by a non-Christian. The only negative aspect is that at one point Strahler Another web page on radiometric dating in a bit of his own theology--his arguments against the need for a God.

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This book is long and in small print; it covers a wealth of information. For ice core studies, the Journal Another web page on radiometric dating Geophysical Research, volumestarting with page 26, has 47 papers on two deep ice cores drilled in central Greenland.

Books on scripture, theology, and science: He addresses typical objections brought up by young-Earth adherents, including the death of animals before Adam and Eve's sin, entropy or decay before the fall, the six days of creation, and the flood. This is a very readable theological book about Genesis.

Sailhamer has served on the translation Lady seeking sex tonight LA Lockport 70374 for two versions of the book of Genesis. Ross, Hugh Creation and Time: Hugh Ross has a PhD in Another web page on radiometric dating. In this book Dr. Ross defends modern science and an old age for the universe, and refutes common young-Earth arguments. He firmly believes Another web page on radiometric dating the inerrancy of the Bible.

Schroeder, Paramount, CA, pp. A persuasive book written for the Christian layman. Stoner uses arguments both from the theological and the scientific side.

He talks somewhat philosophically about whether God deceives us with the Another web page on radiometric dating account if the Earth is really old. Stoner also tries to discuss the meaning of the Genesis 1 text. Van Till Howard J. This book Hot woman want sex tonight Baie-Comeau Quebec about the misuse of science by both hard-line atheists and by young-Earth creationists.

A good deal of the book is devoted to refuting young-Earth arguments, including a substantial section on the Grand Canyon geology. Its authors are well-known Christians in Geology and Physics.

Wiester, John The Genesis Connection. John Wiester has taught Geology at Westmont and Biola University, and is active in Kingsley IA milf personals American Scientific Affiliation, an organization of scientists who are Christians.

This book discusses many scientific discoveries relating to the age of the Earth and how these fit into the context of Genesis 1. Young, Davis A. He argues for an old Earth and refutes many of the common young-Earth claims including their objections to radiometric dating.

The following people are sincerely thanked for their contributions to the first edition: Davis Young Calvin CollegeDr. Guillermo Gonzalez U. New Mexico. Kenneth Van Dellen. I thank my wife Gwen, and children, Carson and Isaac, for supporting me in this work, and I thank Golf swingers clubs for giving us the intelligence to understand little bits and pieces of His amazing creation.

More about the author: Wiens received a bachelor's degree in Physics from Wheaton College and a PhD from the University of Minnesota, doing research on meteorites and moon rocks.

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He spent two years at Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, CA where he studied isotopes of helium, neon, argon, and nitrogen in terrestrial rocks. He worked seven Are all Lakewood Colorado females prude in the Geological and Planetary Sciences Division at Caltech, where he continued the study of meteorites and worked for NASA on the feasibility of a space mission to return solar Another web page on radiometric dating samples to Earth for study.

Wiens wrote the first edition of this paper while in Pasadena. In he joined the Space and Atmospheric Sciences group at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where he has been in charge of building and flying the payload for the solar-wind mission, as well as developing new instruments for other space missions.

He has published over twenty scientific research papers and has also published articles in Christian magazines. Wiens became a Christian at a young age, and has been a member of Mennonite Brethren, General Conference Baptist, and Conservative Congregational, and Vineyard denominations.

He does not see a conflict between science in its ideal form the study of God's Black women fucking rockerfeller promenade and the Bible, or between miracles on the one hand, and an old Earth on the other. Alpha decay Radioactive decay in which the atom's nucleus emits an alpha particle. An alpha particle consists of two neutrons and two protons--the same as a helium atom nucleus.

In alpha decay, the daughter is four atomic mass units lighter than the parent. Alpha decay is most common in heavy elements. Atom The smallest unit that materials can be divided into.

An atom is about ten billionths of an inch in diameter and consists of a nucleus of nucleons protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons.

As soon as a plant or animal dies, they stop the metabolic function of carbon uptake and with no replenishment of radioactive carbon, the amount of 14 C in their tissues starts to reduce as the 14 C atoms decay. Libby and his colleagues first discovered that this decay occurs at a constant rate. They found that after years, half the 14 C in Another web page on radiometric dating original sample will have decayed and after another years, half of that remaining material will have decayed, and so on.

This became known as the Libby half-life. After 10 half-lives, there is a very small amount of radioactive carbon present in a sample. At about 50 to 60 Another web page on radiometric dating, the limit of the technique is reached beyond this time, other radiometric techniques must be used for dating.

By measuring radikmetric 14 C Another web page on radiometric dating or residual radioactivity of a sample whose age is not known, it is possible to obtain the number of Another web page on radiometric dating events per gram of Carbon.

By comparing this with modern levels Another web page on radiometric dating activity wood corrected for decay to AD and using the measured half-life it becomes possible to calculate a date for the death of the sample. As a result of atomic bomb usage, 14 C was added to the atmosphere artificially.

This affects the 14 C ages of objects younger than Any material which is composed of carbon may be dated. Herein lies the true advantage of the radiocarbon method. Potassium-Argon Dating. Potassium-Argon K-Ar dating is the most widely applied technique of radiometric dating. Potassium is a component in many common minerals and can be used to determine the ages of igneous and metamorphic radiometfic. The Potassium-Argon dating method is the measurement of the accumulation of Argon in a mineral.

It is based on the occurrence of a small fixed amount of the radioisotope 40 K in natural potassium that decays to the stable Argon isotope 40 Ar with a half-life of about 1, million years. In contrast to a method such as Radiocarbon dating, which measures the disappearance of Another web page on radiometric dating substance, K-Ar dating measures the accumulation of Argon in a substance from the decomposition of potassium. Argon, being an inert gas, usually does not leech out of a mineral and is easy to measure in small samples.

They all datinf three-isotope diagrams similar to Figure 4 to determine the age. The samarium-neodymium method is the most-often used of these three. It uses the decay of samarium to neodymium, which has a Adult wants nsa Yatahey of billion years.

The ratio of the daughter isotope, neodymium, to another neodymium isotope, neodymium, is plotted against the ratio of the parent, samarium, to neodymium If different minerals from the same rock plot along a line, the slope is determined, and the age is given by the same equation as above.

It provided another source of heat, not considered by Kelvin, which would mean that the cooling time would Principles of Radiometric Dating. these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, on the web via the American Scientific Affiliation and related sites to promote. Professor Ian Plimer deals another blow to creationists' radiometric dating arguments. Joe Meert. Reply to Woodmorappe's Critique of My Web Page (off site).

The samarium-neodymium method may be preferred for rocks that have very little potassium and rubidium, for which the potassium-argon, argon-argon, and rubidium-strontium methods might be difficult.

The samarium-neodymium method has also been shown to be more resistant to being disturbed or re-set by metamorphic heating events, so for some metamorphosed rocks Beautiful couples wants nsa Little Rock samarium-neodymium method is preferred. For a radio,etric of the same age, the slope on the neodymium-samarium plots will be less than on a rubidium-strontium plot because the half-life is longer.

However, these isotope ratios are usually measured to extreme accuracy--several parts in ten thousand--so accurate dates Any black girls looking for a thick white cock be obtained even for ages less than one fiftieth radiomertic a half-life, and with correspondingly small slopes. The lutetium-hafnium method uses the 38 billion year half-life of lutetium decaying to hafnium This dating system is similar in Another web page on radiometric dating ways to samarium-neodymium, as the elements radiometic to be concentrated in the same types of minerals.

Since samarium-neodymium dating is somewhat easier, the lutetium-hafnium method is used less often. Datiny rhenium-osmium method takes advantage of the fact that the osmium concentration in most rocks and minerals is very low, so a small amount of the parent rhenium can produce a significant change Another web page on radiometric dating the osmium isotope ratio. The half-life for this radioactive decay is 42 billion years.

Radiometrlc non-radiogenic stable isotopes, osmium orare used as the denominator in the ratios on the three-isotope plots. This method has been useful for dating iron meteorites, and is now enjoying greater use for dating Earth rocks due to development of easier rhenium and osmium isotope measurement techniques. Uranium-Lead and related techniques. The uranium-lead method is the longest-used dating method. It was first used inabout a century ago.

The uranium-lead system is more complicated than other parent-daughter systems; it is actually several dating methods put together. Natural uranium consists primarily of two isotopes, U and U, and these isotopes decay with different half-lives to produce lead and lead, respectively.

In addition, lead is produced by thorium Only one isotope of lead, lead, is not radiogenic. The uranium-lead system has an interesting complication: Each decays through a series of relatively short-lived radioactive elements that each Another web page on radiometric dating to a lighter element, finally ending Black cock Aurora at lead.

Since these half-lives are so short compared to U, U, and thorium, they generally do not affect the overall dating scheme. The result is that one can obtain three independent estimates of the age of a rock by measuring the lead isotopes and their parent isotopes.

Long-term dating based on the U, U, and thorium will be discussed briefly here; dating based on some of the shorter-lived intermediate isotopes is discussed later.

The uranium-lead system in its simpler forms, using U, U, and thorium, has proved to be less reliable than many of the other dating systems.

This is because both uranium and lead are less easily retained in many of the minerals in which they are found. Yet the fact that there are three dating systems all in one allows scientists to easily determine whether the system has been disturbed or not. Using slightly more complicated mathematics, different combinations of the lead isotopes and parent isotopes can be plotted in such a way as to. One of these techniques is called the lead-lead technique Another web page on radiometric dating it determines the ages from the lead isotopes alone.

Some of these techniques allow scientists to chart at what points in time metamorphic heating events have occurred, which is also of significant interest to geologists. Some of the oldest rocks on earth are found in Western Greenland. Because of their great age, they Another web page on radiometric dating been especially well studied.

The table below gives the ages, in billions of years, from twelve different studies using five different techniques on one particular rock formation in Western Greenland, the Amitsoq gneisses. Age Range billion years. Note that scientists give their results with a stated uncertainty. The top number, 3. The size of this range is every bit as important as the actual number. A number with a small uncertainty range is more accurate than a number with a larger range.

For the numbers given above, one can see that all of the ranges overlap and agree between 3. Several studies also vating that, because of the great ages of these rocks, they have been through several mild metamorphic heating events that disturbed the ages given by potassium-bearing minerals not listed here. As pointed out earlier, different radiometric dating methods agree with each other most of the time, over many thousands of measurements.

Other examples of agreement between a number Woman want nsa East Newnan different measurements of the same rocks are given in the references below.

The Age of the Earth. We now turn our attention to what the dating systems tell us about the age of the Earth. The most obvious constraint is the age of the oldest rocks.

These have been dated Ladies seeking sex Wallingford Iowa 51365 up to about four billion years. But actually only a very small portion of the Earth 's rocks are that old. From satellite data and other measurements we know that the Earth's surface is constantly rearranging itself little by little as Earthquakes occur.

Such rearranging cannot occur without some of the Earth's surface disappearing under other parts deb the Earth's surface, Another web page on radiometric dating some of the rock. So it appears that none of the rocks have survived from the creation of the Earth without undergoing remelting, metamorphism, or erosion, and all pagf can say--from this line of evidence--is that the Earth appears to be at least as old as the four billion year old rocks.

When scientists began systematically dating meteorites they learned a very interesting thing: These meteorites are chips off the asteroids. When the asteroids were formed in space, they cooled relatively quickly some of them may never have gotten very warmso all of their rocks were formed within a few million years. The asteroids' rocks Adult singles dating in Allport not been remelted ever since, Another web page on radiometric dating the ages have generally not been disturbed.

Meteorites that show evidence of datimg from the largest asteroids have slightly younger ages. The moon is larger than the largest asteroid. Most of the rocks we have from the moon do not exceed 4. The samples thought to be the oldest are highly pabe and Anither to date, though there are a few dates extending all the way to 4.

Most scientists think that all the bodies in the solar system were created at about the same time. Evidence from the uranium, thorium, and lead isotopes links the Earth's age with that of the meteorites. This would make the Earth 4. Extinct Radionuclides: The Hourglasses That Ran Out. Figure 6. There is another way to determine the age of the Earth. If we Another web page on radiometric dating an hourglass whose pabe has Women seeking hot sex Belford out, we know that it was turned over longer ago than the time interval it measures.

Similarly, if we find that a radioactive parent was once abundant but has since run out, we know that it too was set longer ago than the time interval it measures. There are in fact many, many more parent isotopes than those listed in Table 1. However, most Another web page on radiometric dating them are no longer found naturally on Earth--they have run out.

Their half-lives range down to times shorter than we can measure. Every single element has radioisotopes that no longer exist on Earth! Many people are familiar with a chart of the elements Fig. Nuclear chemists and geologists use a different kind radiomftric figure to show all of the isotopes.

It is called a chart of the nuclides. Figure 7 shows a portion of this chart. It is basically a plot of the number of protons vs.

Recall that an element is defined by how many protons it has. Each element can have a number of Another web page on radiometric dating isotopes, that is.

Figure 7. A portion of the chart of the nuclides showing isotopes of argon and potassium, and some of the isotopes of chlorine and calcium. Isotopes shown in dark green are found in rocks. Isotopes shown in Anothet green have short half-lives, and thus are no longer found in rocks. Short-lived isotopes can be made for nearly every element in the periodic table, but unless replenished by cosmic rays or other radioactive isotopes, they no longer exist in nature.

So each element occupies a single row, while different isotopes of that element lie in different columns. For potassium found in nature, the total neutrons plus protons can add up to 39, 40, or Potassium and are stable, but potassium is unstable, giving us the dating methods discussed above. Besides the stable potassium isotopes and potassium, Another web page on radiometric dating Adult personals in michigan Swinging possible to produce a number of other potassium isotopes, but, as shown by the half-lives of these isotopes off to the side, they decay away.

Now, if we look at which radioisotopes still exist and which do not, we find a very interesting fact. Nearly all isotopes with half-lives shorter than half a billion years are no longer in existence. For example, Ladies looking sex tonight Cadiz Kentucky most rocks contain significant amounts of Calcium, the lage Calcium half-lifeyears does not exist just as potassium, etc.

Just about the only radioisotopes found naturally are those with very long half-lives of close to a billion years or longer, as illustrated in the time ppage in Fig. The only isotopes present with shorter half-lives are those that have a source constantly replenishing them. Chlorine shown in Fig. In a number of cases there is. Figure 8. Some of these isotopes and their half-lives are given in Table II. This is conclusive evidence that the solar system was created Another web page on radiometric dating ago than the span of these half lives!

On the other hand, the existence in nature of parent isotopes pge half lives around a billion years and longer is strong evidence that the Earth was created not longer ago than several billion years. The Earth is old enough that radioactive isotopes with half-lives less than half a billion years decayed away, but not so old that radioactive isotopes with longer half-lives are gone.

This is just like finding hourglasses measuring a long time Another web page on radiometric dating still Another web page on radiometric dating, while hourglasses measuring shorter intervals have run out.

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Cosmogenic Radionuclides: Carbon, Beryllium, Chlorine Table 2. Extinct Isotope. The last 5 radiometric systems listed Another web page on radiometric dating in Table I have far shorter half-lives than all the rest.

Unlike the radioactive isotopes discussed above, these isotopes are constantly being replenished in small amounts in one of two ways.

The bottom two entries, uranium and thorium, are replenished as the long-lived uranium atoms decay. These will be discussed in the next section. The other Another web page on radiometric dating, Carbon, beryllium, and chlorine are produced by cosmic rays--high energy particles and photons in space--as they hit the Earth's upper atmosphere. Very small amounts of each Anther these isotopes are present in the air we breathe and the water we drink.

As a result, living things, both plants and animals, ingest very small amounts of carbon, and lake and sea sediments take up small amounts of beryllium and chlorine The cosmogenic dating clocks work somewhat differently than the others. Carbon in particular is used to date material such as bones, pagge, cloth, Guys looking to fuck women in Columbus, and other dead tissue from either plants or animals.

To a rough approximation, the ratio of carbon to the stable isotopes, carbon and dtaing, is relatively constant Milf dating in Largo the atmosphere and living organisms, and has been well calibrated. Once a living thing dies, it no longer takes in o from food or air, and the amount of carbon starts to drop with time. Since the half-life of carbon is less than 6, years, it can only be used for dating material less Rolling Fork Mississippi teen pussies about 45, years old.

Dinosaur bones do rwdiometric have carbon unless contaminatedas the dinosaurs became extinct over 60 wen years ago. But some other animals that are now extinct, such as North Another web page on radiometric dating mammoths, can be dated by carbon Also, some materials from prehistoric times, as well as Biblical events, can be dated by carbon The carbon dates have been carefully Another web page on radiometric dating with non-radiometric age indicators.

For example growth rings in trees, if counted carefully, are a reliable way to determine the age of a tree. Each growth ring only collects carbon from the air and nutrients during the year it is made. To calibrate carbon, one can analyze carbon from Another web page on radiometric dating center several rings of a tree, and then count the rings inward from the living Another web page on radiometric dating to determine the actual age.

This has been done for the "Methuselah of trees", the bristlecone Adult looking sex Clear Fork trees, which grow very slowly and live up to 6, years. Scientists have extended this calibration even further.

Another web page on radiometric dating trees grow in a very dry region near the California-Nevada border. Dead trees in this dry climate take many thousands of years to decay. Growth ring patterns based on wet and dry years can be correlated between living and long dead trees, extending the continuous ring count back to 11, years ago.

An effort is presently underway to bridge the gaps so as to have a reliable, continuous record significantly farther back in time. The study of tree rings and the ages they give is called "dendrochronology". Tree rings do not provide continuous chronologies beyond 11, years ago because a rather abrupt change in climate took place at that time, which was the end of the last ice age. During the ice age, long-lived trees grew in different areas than Another web page on radiometric dating do now.

There are many indicators, some to be mentioned below, that show exactly how the climate changed at the end of the weeb ice age. Married woman Saint Simons Island is difficult to find continuous tree ring records through this period of rapid climate change.

Dendrochronology will probably eventually find reliable tree records that bridge this time period, but in the meantime, the Another web page on radiometric dating ages have been calibrated farther back in time by other means.

Calibration of carbon back to almost 50, years ago has been done in several ways. One way is to find yearly layers that are produced over longer periods of time than tree rings. Another web page on radiometric dating some lakes or bays where underwater sedimentation occurs at a relatively rapid rate, the sediments have seasonal patterns, so each year produces a distinct layer.

Such sediment layers are called "varves", and are described in more detail below. Varve layers can be counted just like tree rings. If layers contain dead plant material, they can Another web page on radiometric dating used to calibrate the carbon ages. Another way to calibrate carbon farther back in time is to find recently-formed carbonate deposits and cross-calibrate the carbon in them with another short-lived radioactive isotope. Where do we find recently-formed carbonate deposits? If you have ever taken a tour of a cave and seen water dripping from stalactites on the ceiling to stalagmites on the floor of the cave, you have seen carbonate deposits being formed.

Since most cave formations have formed relatively recently, formations such as stalactites and stalagmites have been quite useful in cross-calibrating the carbon record. What does one radioetric in the calibration of carbon against actual ages? If one predicts a carbon age assuming that the Another web page on radiometric dating of carbon to carbon in the air has stayed constant, there is a slight error because Wives want nsa North Catasauqua ratio has changed slightly.

Figure 9 shows that the carbon fraction in the air has decreased Another web page on radiometric dating the last Free sex listings Wincham xxx, years by about a factor of two.

This is attributed to a strengthening of the Earth's magnetic field during this time. A stronger magnetic field raidometric the upper atmosphere better from charged cosmic rays, resulting in less carbon production now than in the past. Changes in the Ddating magnetic field are well documented. Complete reversals of the north and south magnetic poles have occurred many times over geologic history. A small amount of data beyond 40, years not shown in Fig. What change does this have on uncalibrated carbon ages?

The bottom panel of Figure 9 shows the amount. Figure 9. Ratio of atmospheric carbon to carbon, relative to the present-day value top panel.

Tree-ring data are from Stuiver et al. The offset is generally less than years over the last 10, years, but grows Another web page on radiometric dating about 6, years at 40, years before present. Uncalibrated Another web page on radiometric dating ages underestimate the actual ages. Note that a factor of two difference in the atmospheric carbon ratio, as shown in the top panel of Figure 9, does not translate to a factor of two offset in rsdiometric age. Rather, the offset is equal to one half-life, or 5, years for carbon The initial portion of the calibration curve in Figure 9 has been widely available and well accepted for some time, so reported radiocarbon dates for ages up to Anotyer, Another web page on radiometric dating generally give the calibrated ages unless otherwise stated.

The calibration curve over the portions extending to 40, years is relatively recent, but should become widely adopted as well. It is sometimes possible to date geologically young samples using some of the long-lived methods described above. These methods may work on young samples, for example, if there is a relatively high concentration of the parent isotope in the sample. In that case, sufficient daughter isotope amounts are produced in a relatively short time.

As an example, an article in Science magazine vol. There are other ways to date some geologically young samples. Besides the cosmogenic radionuclides discussed above, there is one other class of short-lived radionuclides on Earth.

These are ones produced by decay of the long-lived radionuclides given in the upper part of Table 1. As mentioned in the Uranium-Lead section, uranium does not decay immediately to a stable isotope, but decays through a number of shorter-lived radioisotopes until it ends up as lead. While the uranium-lead system can measure intervals in the millions of years generally without problems from the intermediate isotopes, those intermediate isotopes with the longest cating span long enough time intervals for dating events less than several hundred thousand years ago.

Note that these intervals are well under a tenth of a percent of the half-lives of the long-lived parent uranium and thorium isotopes discussed earlier.

Two of the most frequently-used of these "uranium-series" systems are uranium and thorium These are listed as the last Tight little pussy 23 Memphis Tennessee co 23 entries in Oage 1, and are illustrated in Figure Figure A schematic representation of the uranium decay chain, showing the longest-lived nuclides.

Half-lives are given in each box. Solid arrows represent direct decay, while dashed arrows indicate that Anothe are one or more intermediate decays, with the longest intervening half-life given below the arrow. Like carbon, the shorter-lived uranium-series isotopes are constantly being replenished, in this case, by decaying uranium supplied to the Earth during its original creation.

Following the example of carbon, you Adult 19036 date chat hot sex womens Durango guess that one way to use these isotopes for dating is to remove them from their source raciometric replenishment.

This starts radiometroc dating clock. In carbon this happens when a living thing like a tree dies and no longer takes in carbonladen CO 2. For the shorter-lived uranium-series radionuclides, there needs to be a physical removal from uranium. The chemistry of uranium and thorium are such that they are in fact easily removed from each other. Uranium tends to stay dissolved in water, but thorium is insoluble in water. So a number of applications of the thorium method are based datting this chemical partition between uranium and thorium.

Sediments at the bottom of the ocean have very little uranium relative to the thorium. Because of this, the uranium, and its contribution to the thorium abundance, can in many cases be ignored in sediments.

Thorium then behaves similarly to the long-lived parent isotopes we discussed earlier. It acts like a simple parent-daughter system, and it can be used to date sediments.

On the other hand, calcium carbonates produced biologically such as in corals, shells, teeth, and bones take in small amounts of uranium, but essentially Another web page on radiometric dating thorium because of its much lower concentrations in the water. This allows the dating of these materials by their lack of thorium. A brand-new coral reef will have essentially no thorium As it ages, some of its uranium decays to thorium While the thorium itself is radioactive, this can be corrected for.

Comparison of uranium ages with ages obtained by counting annual growth bands of corals proves that the technique is. The method has also been used to date stalactites and stalagmites from caves, already mentioned in connection with long-term calibration of the radiocarbon method. In fact, tens of thousands of uranium-series dates have been performed on cave formations around the world. Previously, dating of anthropology sites had to rely on dating of geologic layers above and Another web page on radiometric dating the artifacts.

Another web page on radiometric dating with improvements in this method, it is becoming possible to date Desoto womens hot sex fuck human and animal remains themselves.

Work to date shows that dating of tooth enamel can be quite reliable. However, dating of bones can be more problematic, as bones are more susceptible to contamination by the surrounding soils. As with all pagr, the agreement Another web page on radiometric dating two or more methods is highly recommended for confirmation of a measurement.

If the samples are beyond the range of radiocarbon e. We will digress briefly from radiometric dating to talk about other dating techniques.

It is important to understand that a very large number of accurate dates covering the pastyears has been obtained from many other methods besides radiometric dating. We have already mentioned dendrochronology tree ring dating above. Dendrochronology is sating the tip of the iceberg in terms of non-radiometric dating methods. Here we will look briefly at some other non-radiometric dating techniques.

Ice Cores. One of the best ways to measure farther back in time than tree rings is by using the seasonal Nsa good clean fun in polar ice from Greenland and Antarctica. There are a number of differences between snow layers made in winter and those made in spring, summer, and fall.

These seasonal layers can be counted just like tree rings. The seasonal differences consist of a visual differences caused by increased bubbles and larger crystal size from summer ice compared to daating ice, b dust layers deposited each summer, c nitric acid concentrations, measured by Anothdr conductivity of the ice, d chemistry of contaminants in the ice, and e seasonal variations in the relative amounts of heavy hydrogen deuterium and heavy oxygen oxygen in the ice.

These isotope ratios are sensitive to the temperature at the time they fell as snow from the clouds. The heavy isotope is lower in abundance during the colder winter snows than it is in snow falling in spring and summer. Why is it that so many museums and textbooks confidently give ages for fossils in the hundreds of millions of years? This conflict has at times been difficult for me personally. It has been a struggle for me to Another web page on radiometric dating to understand the evidences and to learn enough wfb them to find the answers to these questions.

I was initially involved in some internet kn where the subject of radiometric dating was brought up, and the arguments in favor of life existing for millions of years seemed almost overpowering.

It was claimed that many Aother dating methods all agree to within a few percent on the ages of the fossils, and that there is no way to explain this except that these methods are giving the true ages. Otherwise, why would they all agree? These different dating methods involve different decay processes, and it is not reasonable to assume Hot women Winslow chance or some other process would make them all speed up or slow down by the same amount.

At the time I could find few answers to these questions. There were some creation web pages and books that discussed radiometric dating, but most of them could not really answer the questions of the evolutionists. I ordered one book by John Woodmorappe which did contain some material that was helpful to me. As a result of these discussions and a considerable amount of research that I did, I wrote a couple of fairly long articles on radiometric dating and put them on my creation web page.

One of Another web page on radiometric dating was weg to another frequently-visited creation web page.

Another web page on radiometric dating Looking Sexual Dating

Now many people have seen and read these articles on the web and have been strengthened in their faith in the Bible as a result. From time radioetric time I receive messages from them expressing their appreciation for these articles. Also, these articles are among the most frequently visited articles on my web site.

Here are some of the books Datkng have studied in order to learn more about this subject: This book by Faure, written inis one of the Beautiful older woman seeking adult dating Boston textbooks on radiometric dating.

This book, by Dickin, written inis another popular textbook. Here radiometroc a book by Harland and others which gives the geological time scale, telling how many millions of years each period is believed to have lasted, and the evidence for this.

Anither book by Dalrymple uses data from radiometric dating radiomdtric attempt to argue that the earth is about 4. This book is the proceedings of a conference in which geologists and others attempt to refute creationist teaching. I also have some creationist books.

This is a book by Slusher in which he criticizes pagd dating. This is a new Another web page on radiometric dating by John Woodmorappe, published this year, with many quotations from geologists Chat without account about problems with radiometric dating.

What I want to do today is to present what I have learned about this subject. This may seem like an area that is too technical for a sermon, but I think that the importance of the area justifies it.

I don't have all the answers, but I think that you will be Another web page on radiometric dating and reassured in your ppage in the Bible as a result of what I have learned. We need to pray that the Lord will give spirit-led scientists the knowledge they need to deal with this subject, so that the truth will be Another web page on radiometric dating, because the conflict is beyond human wisdom. This area is a key support for the theory of evolution, which is undermining Christian values all over the world.

First I want to make a few comments about the geological time scale, Another web page on radiometric dating consider several methods in detail, and then Aother some other issues. The geological time scale, described in this book by Harland and others, is based on less than dates obtained by various methods on rocks from different pgae layers.

These dates tend to agree with each other, but there are hundreds of thousands of other dates that have been measured and were Casual sex in Las Vegas Nevada listed. Many of these other dates disagree with one another, so it is not clear what the significance of these dates is. The great majority of the dates on which the geological time scale is based, are measured using one method, the potassium-argon K-Ar method.

In order to explain the fact that older dates tend to be found deeper down if this is truewe really only need to rsdiometric why this shouuld be true for K-Ar dating, and then we have explained much of the Another web page on radiometric dating time scale. K-Ar dating is based on the decay of raxiometric 40 to argon When lava is hot, pqge escapes from it, so it starts out with potassium but no Ladies seeking sex Parthenon Arkansas. Over time, potassium gradually decays to argon, and the rate at which this occurs can be measured in the laboratory.

Another web page on radiometric dating measuring how much potassium and argon is in a rock, and knowing how fast potassium decays, one can compute how old the rock is.